THE ULTIMATE DIFFERENCE
There are many glucosamine products on the market. Most are irrational combinations without any solid clinical or scientific basis to justify their use. This is not the case for ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE.
ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE contains 100% pure N-acetylglucosamine that meets the United States Pharmacopeial (USP) standard for N-acetylglucosamine. N-Acetylglucosamine (MW of 221) is the form in which glucosamine is active in the human body.
Most of the glucosamines on the Canadian market are either the sulphate or hydrochloride salt. The salt form stabilizes this type of glucosamine (MW 179). This low molecular weight glucosamine must first be converted to N-acetylglucosamine before it can be used to build macromolecules such as hyaluronic acid.
From Glucose to N-Acetylglucosamine
The acetyl molecule on the amine in N-acetylglucosamine makes this molecule very stable. In contrast the free amine of the glucosamine molecule makes glucosamine very unstable.
Hrynets, Y., M. Ndagijimana, et al. (2015). “Studies on the Formation of Maillard and Caramelization Products from Glucosamine Incubated at 37 degrees C.” J Agric Food Chem 63(27): 6249-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114422
Because N-acetylglucosamine is inherently stable it is not necessary to add stabilizing salts. Therefore gram for gram, N-acetylglucosamine contains more of the active ingredient that the sulphate or hydrochlorides salts of glucosamine.
ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE is the most direct route to the important macromolecules such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate. Glucosamine salts contain the low molecular weight glucosamine that must first be acetylated to N-acetylglucosamine before it can be used as a building block for macromolecules. The acetylation process is rate limiting. Substances such as alcohol and NSAIDs may slow or prevent the acetylation process. Intracellular concentration of low molecular glucosamine are controlled by the presence of deaminases. Deaminases remove the amine from glucosamine and convert the molecule back to glucose.
ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE does not interfere with glucose metabolism. The molecular weight of N-acetylglucosamine is 221, which is much larger that the molecular weight of glucose at 180. N-Acetylglucosamine does not compete with glucose for cell entry and does not use glucose transporters. In contrast glucosamine with a molecular weight of 179 does use glucose transporters to enter the cell.
Upon entering the cell the glucosamine (MW 179) is phosphorylated by glucokinase and competes with glucose for binding to glucokinase. This can result in glucosamine induced insulin resistance. N-Acetylglucosamine is phosphorylated by N-acetylglucosamine kinase and does not compete with glucose for phosphorylation.
ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE is available in a once-a-day powder. It is sweet tasting, and can be used in hot beverages such as tea or coffee, and in cold beverages or sprinkled over food.